Biomass: the Chain of Destruction References & notes

1. Introduction

[1] www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/2012/biomass_myth_report/
[2] Center for Study and Research for the Development of the Southern Bahia Region
[3] See http://www.mgtpower.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/MGT-Press-Release-26Oct12.pdf but also http://companycheck.co.uk/company/06574235/MGT-TEESSIDE-LIMITED/financial-accounts and http://companycheck.co.uk/company/06419152/MGT-POWER-LIMITED/financial-accounts#financials
[4] http://www.dogwoodalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Enviva-Mill-in-Ahoskie-Dogwood-Report.pdf
[5] http://www.woodpelletservices.com/market_background_and_trends.pdf
[6] http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/resources-on-biomass/
[7] https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48337/5142-bioenergy-strategy-.pdf
[8] See https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/transition-from-the-renewables-obligation-to-contracts-for-difference
[9] https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/223489/ROtransitionconsultation17July2013.pdf
[10] This figure is based on our regularly updated map and spreadsheet found at http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/wp-content/maps/uk-biomass.html . Projects marked as ‘withdrawn’ or ‘rejected’ have been excluded when calculating the overall forecast demand.
[11] http://www.forestry.gov.uk/website/forstats2013.nsf/LUContents/35053FAF3CAE1BB5802573550054ABD7
[12] http://processengineering.theengineer.co.uk/power-and-water/drax-biomass-running-at-half-capacity/1016822.article
[13] Note that all tonnage figures refer to green tonnes, i.e. tonnes of wood as it is harvested, rather than dried wood.
[14] http://www.conbio.info/e-on-uk-powerplant-ironbridge-now-on-100-percent-biomass/
[15] http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/business/sectors/144494.aspx – See spreadsheet about NOx emissions, which are comparable to those from coal combustion. Very low NOx emissions therefore indicate that the power station was run at a small fraction of its capacity.
[16] Aberthaw power station co-fires around 100,000 tonnes of wood a year with coal.
[17] See load factors for biomass plants accessible at http://www.ref.org.uk/roc-generators/search.php?mode=client&rid=&GeneratorName=&CtryCode=&kwaction=equals&InstalledkW=&TechGroup=BM&TechCode=&dateaction=equals&AccreditationDate=&Location=&CHP=&turbineaction=equals&NumTurbines=&TurbineModel=&HubHeight=&BladeDiam=&Developer=&Operator=&SiteOwner=&Postcode=&save=Search
[18] https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/65850/DUKES_2013_Chapter_6.pdf
[19] http://www.ref.org.uk/roc-generators/view.php?rid=R00083RAEN
[20] See for example http://www.energyjustice.net/content/biomass-industry-plays-fire-gets-burned-biomass-monitor
[21] Forestry Statistics 2013, Forestry Commission, http://www.forestry.gov.uk/website/forstats2013.nsf/LUContentsTop?openview&RestrictToCategory=1
[22] See http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/2013/chpqa-response/
[23] See http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/uk-campaign/coal-biomass-conversions/
[24] http://biofuelwatch.org.uk/docs/DECC%20FoI%20EIR%2013-0340%20Q1%20Documents%20Drax%20etc%209May%202013.pdf
[25] http://peopleforestsrights.wordpress.com/2013/09/25/why-was-the-worlds-biggest-biomass-power-station-closed-down-and-what-does-this-mean-for-forests/
[26] http://www.bioenergytrade.org/downloads/t40-large-industrial-biomass-users.pdf, page 25
[27] Status overview of Torrefaction technologies, IEA Bioenergy Task 32 report, December 2012, http://www.ieabcc.nl/publications/IEA_Bioenergy_T32_Torrefaction_review.pdf

2. International impacts

2.1 Fueling Forest Destruction in the Southern US: An Interview with Danna Smith, Executive Director of the Dogwood Alliance

[1] http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/news/article-2401425/We-produce-power-depend-Russia-Middle-East-Drax-boss-backs-fracking.html and http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b036ky04
[2] http://www.dogwoodalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Enviva-Mill-in-Ahoskie-Dogwood-Report.pdf

2.2 Canada’s Logging “free-for-all”

[1] Fuelling a Biomess: Why burning trees for energy will harm people the climate and forests. Greenpeace Canada 2011. Available at http://www.greenpeace.org/canada/Global/canada/report/2011/10/ForestBiomess_Eng.pdf
[2] http://www.pellet.org/images/CBM_Pelletmap2012FINAL.pdf
[3] http://www.pellet.org/production/production
[4] Calculated from Ofgem biomass sourcing data for 2011/12
[5] Information obtained from the Green Investment Bank indicates that Pinnacle’s Williams Lake and Meadowbank pellet mills in British Columbia are major suppliers to Drax
[6] http://www.rentechinc.com/wood-pellets.php
[7] Resolute’s False Promises: The [Un]Sustainability Report 2013. Greenpeace Canada 2013. Available at http://www.greenpeace.org/canada/resolutefalsepromises/
[8] http://www.sierraclub.bc.ca/media-centre/press-clips/bc2019s-endangered-forests
[9] http://www.greenpeace.org/canada/Global/canada/report/2011/10/ForestBiomess_Eng.pdf
[10] B,C. Ecotourism at the mercy of salvage logging free-for-all. Vancouver Sun, Dec 9th 2011. http://www.canada.com/business/Ecotourism+mercy+salvage+logging+free/5837726/story.html
[11] Biodiversity conservation during salvage logging in the central interior of BC. Forest Practices Board. Available at: http://www.fpb.gov.bc.ca/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=4956
[12] Lloyd, S.A. and Smith, C.T. 2012: Salvage Logging and Wood Pellet Production in British Columbia: A Sustainabiity Assessment. IEA task 43, report 2012:02
[13] http://www.ancientforestalliance.org/news-item.php?ID=663#photo
[14] http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/anti-logging-blockade-aims-to-protect-chilcotin-moose-1.1871745
[15] http://www.raventrust.com/blog/2013-09/backgrounder-tsilhqot-146-in-nation-v-british-columbia-and-canada.html

2.3 Portugal’s Booming Pellet Industry

[1] http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/fra2010/en/
[2] http://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2013/june/1370181600/michaela-mcguire/eucalypt-invasion-portugal
[3] Mercado del pellet en Portugal. http://www.bioenergyinternational.es/noticias/News/show/mercado-del-pellet-en-portugal-589. Publicado en español en BIE 18 Enero 2013
[4] Futuro bioeléctrico en Portugal. http://www.bioenergyinternational.es/noticias/News/show/futuro-bioelectrico-en-portugal-591. 22 May 2013
[5] Pellets en Portugal. El petróleo verde navega al norte. http://www.bioenergyinternational.es/noticias/News/show/pellets-en-portugal-el-petrleo-verde-navega-al-norte-593. 24 May 2013. Publicado en Bioenergy International nº7 · abril 2013
[6] Pellets en Portugal. El petróleo verde navega al norte. http://www.bioenergyinternational.es/noticias/News/show/pellets-en-portugal-el-petrleo-verde-navega-al-norte-593. 24 May 2013. Publicado en Bioenergy International nº7 · abril 2013
[7] http://bioenergyportugal.com/en/background/
[8] Ofgem biomass sourcing stats for 2011/12

2.4 Eucalyptus Plantations for Energy: A Case Study of Suzano’s plantations for wood pellet exports in the Baixo Parnaíba region, Maranhão, Brazil

[1] http://www.relatoriosuzano2011.com.br/PDFs/RA_Suzano2011.pdf
[2] http://www.woodbiomass.com:80/woodbiomass/news/Latin-America/Wood-Energy/Suzanos-Brazilian-pellet-mills-UK-biomass-power-MGT.html
[3] http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/5023/mgt-signs-mou-with-suzano-for-biomass-supply
[4] The authors of this report conducted a field visit to the area and to various communities impacted by Suzano’s operations between the 13th and 17th May 2013. We have chosen not to reveal the names of the people quoted in interviews in order to protect their identities, given the tense situation surrounding land conflicts in the area.
[5] An area 19.179 km2 with 16 municipalities, a population of 411,000, with 53% living rurally. (http://www.territoriosdacidadania.gov.br/dotlrn/clubs/territriosrurais/baixoparnabama/one-community?page_num=0), a much higher proportion than the national average rural population which is around 15%.
[6] In Brazil around 70% of the foods that comprise the basic diet of Brazillians are produced through rural, family-run, small-scale agriculture.
[7] http://www.territoriosdacidadania.gov.br/dotlrn/clubs/territriosrurais/baixoparnabama/one-community?page_num=0
[8] Gaspar, Rafael, “Mobilização e Justiça Ambiental: resistência camponesa e as transformações agrárias no Médio Mearim e Leste Maranhense”, http://www.abant.org.br/conteudo/ANAIS/CD_Virtual_26_RBA/grupos_de_trabalho/trabalhos/GT%2036/rafael%20bezerra%20gaspar.pdf
[9] Gaspar, Rafael, “Mobilização e Justiça Ambiental: resistência camponesa e as transformações agrárias no Médio Mearim e Leste Maranhense”, http://www.abant.org.br/conteudo/ANAIS/CD_Virtual_26_RBA/grupos_de_trabalho/trabalhos/GT%2036/rafael%20bezerra%20gaspar.pdf
[10] http://www.abmbrasil.com.br/news/noticia_integra.asp?cd=573
[11] Régis, Mayron, 2011. “As chapadas e os Bacuris” (The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum, página 55 – It is worth noting that this consultancy, STCP, was later contracted by Suzano for another Environmental Impact Assessment.
[12] Régis, Mayron, “As chapadas e os Bacuris”(The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum, page 50.
[13] Several news articles state that the plant will not resume production before 2016.
[14] Régis, Mayron, “As chapadas e os Bacuris” (The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum, page 60.
[15] Non-Governmental Organisation founded in the 1990’s to monitor the expansion and impacts of large development projects in Maranhão.
[16] http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/impresso,preco-da-terra-agricola-subiu-227-em-dez-anos-quase-o-dobro-da-inflacao-,1003989,0.htm
[17] http://urbanosantosonline.blogspot.com.br/2011/02/comprovado-suzano-e-paineiras-grilam.html
[18] Régis, Mayron, “As chapadas e os Bacuris” (The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum page 97.
[19] The Bacuri, also referred to as Bacurizeiro, is a majestic tree with an impressive diversity of shapes and heights.
[20] http://territorioslivresdobaixoparnaiba.blogspot.com.br/2013/06/secretaria-de-meio-ambiente-suspende.html
[21] http://territorioslivresdobaixoparnaiba.blogspot.fi/2012/07/o-lugar-da-sustentabilidade-nos.html
[22] Régis, Mayron, “As chapadas e os Bacuris” (The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum, page 97.
[23] Régis, Mayron, “As chapadas e os Bacuris” (The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum page 84.
[24] Decision made by the State Judge in Maranhão, case 363-88.2011.8.10.0117, injunction, published on 21/12/2011, signed by Elaile Silva Carvalho, Judge.
[25] Régis, Mayron, “As chapadas e os Bacuris” (The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum.
[26] http://www.udop.com.br/index.php?item=noticias&cod=1082070#nc
[27] http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/nov/15/gm-trees-bred-world-energy
[28] Overbeek W, Kröger M, Gerber J-F. 2012. Um panorama das plantações industriais de árvores no Sul global. Conflitos, tendências e lutas de resistência. Relatório (An overview of industrial tree plantations in the global South. Conflicts, trends and resistance. Report) EJOLT No. 3, 108 p. (http://www.wrm.org.uy/publicaciones/EJOLT_POR.pdf)
[29] http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/impresso,lider-em-celulose-fibria-abre-os-olhos-para-fusoes-,1026637,0.htm, 29/04/2013
[30] http://tvmirante.blogspot.com.br/2013/03/bomba-suzano-suspende-investimentos-em.html
[31] http://www.chapadinhaonline.com.br/2012/01/urbano-santos-suzano-nao-paga.html
[32] http://www.blogfolha.com/?p=71467
[33] http://smdh.org.br/?p=426
[34] http://180graus.com/aquiles-nairo/semarpi-cancela-licenca-ambiental-que-o-estado-tinha-concedido-a-empresa-suzano
[35] Conselho de Manejo Florestal – Forest Stewardship Council (www.fsc.org).
[36] See recent book by investigative journalist Lúcio Vaz called “Leeches of Brazil” about the common practice of companies donating to politicians who promote monoculture tree plantations (see http://www.geracaoeditorial.com.br/hotsite/sanguessugas/)
[37] www.tse.jus.br
[38] http://blog.jornalpequeno.com.br/johncutrim/2012/11/30/veja-as-empresas-que-doaram-ao-pmdb-da-oligarquia-na-campanha-para-prefeito-de-sao-luis/
[39] Written by Horácio Antunes, Professor of Sociology of the Federal University of Maranhão (UFMA). In: Régis, Mayron, “As chapadas e os Bacuris” (The highland plateaus and the Bacuri trees), 2011. Carajás Forum.
[40] http://www.wrm.org.uy/plantations/Tree_plantations_to_generate_energy.html

3. UK Impacts

[1] See for example: http://www.pfpi.net/air-pollution-2
[2] http://planethazard.com/phmapenv.aspx?mode=topten&area=state&state=VT for the McNeil Station in Burlington
[3] http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm091110/text/91110w0010.htm
[4] There may still be a legal case for refusing applications if they would lead to or exacerbate a breach of the EU Air Quality Directive, however without an explicit reference in national planning policy, local authorities would likely be more even cautious about rejecting developments on pollution grounds.
[5] See http://nosouthamptonbiomass.co.uk/
[6] The only dedicated biofuel power station in the UK that Biofuelwatch knows of is operated by Rocpower in Featherstone, Wakefield. We had found out about the proposal after the public consultation period had expired and days before it got approved. There have been serious problems with air pollution and odour and the plant has been operating at just a small fraction of its capacity as a result.
[7] The Coedbach Action Group attempted to challenge a decision to ignore biomass sustainability in a planning decision through the High Court, however their challenge was rejected on the grounds that they had no ‘legal interest’ in that case. The actual merits of the argument were not considered.
[8] Biofuels and biomass defined as ‘waste’ are treated differently in this respect.
[9] http://www.forthenergy.co.uk/biomass-grangemouth-consent-application.asp
[10] http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/welsh-government-launches-action-plan-4692440
[11] See http://geography.exeter.ac.uk/beyond_nimbyism/deliverables/reports_PortTalbot_Final.pdf
[12] http://www.thisissouthwales.co.uk/Biomass-plant-campaigners-pay-pound-46-000-legal/story-16871545-detail/story.html#axzz2emDpYGJd
[13] See for example http://www.thisissouthwales.co.uk/Fears-blaze-disaster-Port-Talbot-s-proposed/story-16881421-detail/story.html#axzz2emDpYGJd
[14] http://www.thisissouthwales.co.uk/Campaigners-celebrate-Prenergy-cuts-ties-National/story-18167274-detail/story.html#axzz2emDpYGJd
[15] See www.companycheck.co.uk
[16] http://www.planningresource.co.uk/news/1138264/
[17] http://www.solicitorsjournal.com/public/administrative-and-constitutional/update-judicial-review-legal-aid-cuts
[18] Reform of Protective Costs Orders in Environmental Judicial Reviews, Herbert Smith Freehills, Environment and Planning
[19] http://www.saveourspeyside.co.uk
[20] http://pfpi.net/air-pollution-2
[21] http://www.letsrecycle.com/news/latest-news/wood/biomass-is-now-largest-market-for-waste-wood
[22] Realising the Value of Recovered Wood, Market Situation Report – Summer 2011, WRAP, http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/Wood%20Market%20Situation%20Report_0.pdf
[23] Data on load factors in different years can be obtained from http://www.ref.org.uk/roc-generators/search.php?mode=client&rid=&GeneratorName=&CtryCode=&kwaction=equals&InstalledkW=&TechGroup=BM&TechCode=&dateaction=equals&AccreditationDate=&Location=&CHP=&turbineaction=equals&NumTurbines=&TurbineModel=&HubHeight=&BladeDiam=&Developer=&Operator=&SiteOwner=&Postcode=&save=Search (click on generating station, then summary)
[24] Wood fibre availability and demand in Britain 2007 to 2025, by John Clegg Consulting, published by Confor, UKFPA and WPIF, http://www.confor.org.uk/Upload/Documents/37_WoodFibreAvailabilityDemandReportfinal.pdf
[25] http://www2.wrap.org.uk/downloads/Options_and_Risk_Assessment_for_Treated_Wood_Waste.015ec005.2237.pdf
[26] http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/toxic/toxic.htm
[27] Air Pollution from Biomass Energy, Partnership for Policy Integrity, http://pfpi.net/air-pollution-2
[28] Annual Report on the Environmental Performance for 2010 at Western Wood Energy Plant, Port Talbot, ECO2 Ltd, 28th January 2011 (obtained from Environment Agency under Environmental Information Regulations)
[29] http://www.plevinproducts.co.uk/news/latest-news/loyal-plevin-workers-receive-long-service-awards/
[30] Written interview, dated 29th June 2013
[31] http://www.plevin.co.uk/news, Plevin announce plans for £5 million waste wood recycling facility, 13th May 2013
[32] http://premierconstructionnews.com/2013/08/06/renewable-energy-for-sheffield/
[33] www.thisisbristol.co.uk/Avonmouth-residents-anger-collapsed-case/story-16901191-detail/story.html#axzz2bftRl46N
[34] www.theargus.co.uk/news/9340138.Health_fears_over__dangerous__dust_at_Shoreham_port/
[35] Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant, J. Dahlgren et al, Environ.Res, June 2003, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12854688
[36] http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100C/mono100C-15.pdf
[37] http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/
[38] www.hse.gov.uk/coshh/industry/woodworking.htm
[39] /www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0667.html
[40] Promoting the science and engineering to children, Dr Dan Ridley-Ellis, Centre for Timber Engineering, Napier University, 2008, http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/2531/1/Paper_066.pdf
[41] Email by Anthony Griffiths, Customer Contact Unit, Defra received by Donna Liley 3rd January 2013
[42] http://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/documents/National_air_quality_objectives.pdf
[43] Section 79 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990
[44] Monitoring of particulate matter in ambient air around waste facilities, Technical Guidance Document M17, Environment Agency, http://persona.uk.com/kings_lynn/Core_docs/Q/Q1.pdf
[45] Please note: The discussion of the Trafford case should be read as a, sadly not unusual, experience of one community and their elected members when trying to stop a polluting development on air quality grounds. Please note that this section should not be considered a legal analysis of planning policy and air quality. Every planning application and appeal should be judged on its own merits and the outcome of this Public Inquiry was based on specific witness evidence. It therefore does not set a legal precedent and it does not affect relevant case law.
[46] http://pfpi.net/air-pollution-2
[47] Planning Policy Statement 23: Planning and Pollution Control
[48] For a list of all National Air Quality Objectives, see http://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/documents/National_air_quality_objectives.pdf
[49] Environment Agency response to an Environmental Information Regulations request by the Breathe Clean Air Group
[50] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-south-scotland-23850895
[51] Site Status Report for Scotgen Ltd Dargavel Energy from Waste Facility, 21st June 2013, SEPA, downloaded from http://www.sepa.org.uk/waste/waste_regulation/energy_from_waste/efw_sites_in_scotland.aspx
[52] http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/home-news/waste-firm-on-brink-of-closure.21955343-Addendum-formatted2.pdf
[53] http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Biofuelwatch-reponse-Peel-Energy
[54] Burning biomass or fossil fuels emits two types of nitrogen oxides, mostly NO plus some NO2. Health impacts are associated with NO2, but once in the atmosphere, a large proportion of the NO emitted undergoes chemical reactions to NO2. Therefore, the level of NOx emissions is closely related to increases in NO2 levels in the atmosphere and thus to health impacts.
[55] Pregenergy’s proposed 350 MW power station in Port Talbot – the world’s biggest new-built biomass power station – was approved in 2008 but has not attracted investment and thus not been built. It has faced strong opposition from a local group, Port Talbot Residents Against Power Stations.

3.11 Biomass power station location and deprivation

[1] Mitchell, G., and Dorling, D. (2003) An environmental justice analysis of British air quality. Environment and Planning, volume 35, pages 909-929
[2] Studies which have investigated the relationship between the location of polluting industries and the deprivation of surrounding communities include, but are not limited to:
Anderton, D.L., Anderson A.B., Oakes, J.M., & Fraser, M. (1994) Environmental equity: The demographics of dumping. Demography, 31, 221-240
Been, V. (1994) Locally undesirable land uses in minority neighbourhoods: Disproportionate sighting or market dynamics? Yale Law Journal, 103 pp. 1301 – 1422.
Bullard, R.D., & Wright, B.H. (1987) Environmentalism and the politics of equity: Emergent trends in the black community. Mid American Review of Sociology, 12, 21-37
Chavis, B, F., & Lee, C. (1987) Toxic wastes and race in the united states: A national report on the racial and socio-economic characteristics of communities with hazardous waste sites. New York: Commission for Racial Justice, United Church of Christ.
Edelstein, M.R. (1988) Contaminated communities: The social and psychological impacts of residential toxic exposure. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Harvey, D. (1996) Justice, nature, and the geography of difference. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Maher, T. Environmental Oppression: Who is targeted for Toxic Exposure? January 1998 vol. 28 no. 3 357-367
[3] Friends of the Earth (1999) Pollution Injustice: the geographic relation between household income and polluting factories (London, Foe. Walker, G., Mitchell, G., Fairburn, J., Smith, G. (2005) Industrial pollution and social deprivation: evidence and complexity in evaluating and responding to environmental inequality
[4] Department for Communities and Local Government (2011) English Indices of Deprivation 2010.
Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/english-indices-of-deprivation-2010
A National Statistics Publication for Scotland (2012) Scottish Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2012
Available from: http://simd.scotland.gov.uk/publication-2012/
[5] Friends of the Earth (2001) Pollution and Poverty: Breaking the Link. (Friends of the Earth, London.)
[6] Biofuelwatch https://spreadsheets.google.com/pub?key=t1IqFUIbauqNzp5eFsaVSDA
Note: This list of UK biomass power stations is based on ongoing web monitoring and up to date to the best of our knowledge.

4. GE Trees for Biomass

[1] GE tree research: A country by country overview, World Rainforest Movement, 2008, http://wrm.org.uy/books-and-briefings/ge-tree-research-a-country-by-country-overview/
[2] www.arborgen.us/index.php/bioenergy?phpMyAdmin=WMUOU2lc%2CKuUvO9ltALWVHV0m25
[3] http://www.gmo-safety.eu/news/1164.release-genetically-modified-eucalyptus-approved.html
[4] http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-09/monsanto-dow-modified-crops-to-get-expedited-reviews-by-u-s-.html
[5] FuturaGen, press release, Sao Paulo, 2 May 2012, http://www.futuragene.com/Futuragene-Brazil-field-trials.pdf
Advances in Tree Genetic Engineering in China (as of 2003)
[6] http://www.fao.org/docrep/article/wfc/xii/0280-b2.htm
[7] China’s GM Trees Get Lost In Bureaucracy, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn6402-chinas-gm-trees-get-lost-in-bureaucracy.html
[8] Pearce F.,“Altered Trees Hide Out With the Poplars,” New Scientist, 9/19/04 p.7
[9] http://www.vib.be/en/news/Pages/The-Poplar-Files.aspx
[10] http://gmoinfo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gmp_report.aspx?CurNot=B/PL/10/02-08
[11] http://gmoinfo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gmp_report.aspx?CurNot=B/SE/11/12623
[12] http://www.connectotel.com/gmfood/ge120799.txt
[13] Seattle Times, 28 September 2011, “UW, WSU to get $80M to develop biofuels.”
[14] see: http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/osutrees.cfm
and http://climate-connections.org/2012/04/18/this-weeks-earth-minute-ge-tree-field-trials-destroyed-by-protesters-in-new-zealand/
[15] Stop GE Trees Campaign: http://globaljusticeecology.org/stopgetrees.php
[16] Genetically Engineered Trees and Risk Assessment, Econexus 2008. http://www.econexus.info/publication/genetically-engineered-trees-risk-assessment