BECCS report references

Note: Unless otherwise stated, all weblinks given below were accessed during November 2015.

1 Combining Bioenergy with CCS Reporting and Accounting for Negative Emissions under UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, International Energy Agency, Working Paper, 2011

2 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, International Panel on Climate Change, Special Report, 2005

4 Climate Change 2014 Mitigation of Climate Change Working Group III Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, page 517

6 Towards new scenarios for analysis of emissions, climate change, impacts, and response strategies, IPCC Expert Meeting Report, September 2007http://www.iamconsortium.org/

7 See for example the scientific studies listed at http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/biomass-resources/resources-on-biomass/

8 Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers, International Panel on Climate Change

10 www.newscientist.com/article/mg21628911-600-climate-downgrade-extreme-weather/

12 Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? James Hansen et.al., The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 2008

14 See studies listed at www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/biomass-resources/resources-on-biomass/, which are some of the studies related to biomass electricity.

15 Potential for Biomass and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, International Energy Agency, July 2011

16 Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints, D.P. van Vuuren et.al, Energy Policy(37), 2009

17 (Hoogwijk et al. (2010), Global potential of biomass for energy, in Global Energy Assessment-Preliminary results,  www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/ENE/GEA/index_gea.html

18 Avoiding Bioenergy Energy for Food Crops and Land, Tim Searchinger and Ralph Heimlich, World Resources Institute Working Paper, January 2015,

20 Uncertainties in global-scale reconstructions of historical land use: an illustration using the HYDE data set, Kees Klein Goldewijk and Peter H. Verburg, Landscape Ecology, April 2013

21 Agrofuels and the Myth of the Marginal Lands, by The Gaia Foundation, Biofuelwatch, the African Biodiversity Network, Salva La Selva, Watch Indonesia and EcoNexus, September 2008, www.econexus.info/sites/econexus/files/Agrofuels_&_Marginal-Land-Myth_0.pdf

23 How does crop residue removal affect soil organic carbon and yield? A hierarchical analysis of management and environmental factors, D. Warren Raffa et.al., Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 81, October 2015

25 Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits, Gordon E. Moore, Electronics,April 1965

28 Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics, Gregory F. Nemet, Energy Policy (34), 2006

32 Potential for Biomass and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, International Energy Agency, July 2011

33 UK to build world’s first power plant with negative emissions, Fred Pearce, New Scientist, 5 August 2015, updated 28 September 2015

36 One of Air Liquide’s customers, Carbon Cure, is using CO2 for a more durable product, i.e. in concrete production (discussed below). However, there are no indications that any of the CO2 used for concrete production currently comes from ethanol fermentation.

42 Synthetic Biology, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Potential Impacts of Synthetic Biology on Biological Diversity, Technical Series No. 82, www.cbd.int/doc/publications/cbd-ts-82-en.pdf

53 CO2 capture: Health effects of amines and their derivatives, Norwegian Institute for Public Health, www.fhi.no/artikler/?id=88992

62 http://static1.squarespace.com/static/5394a3cbe4b032d797fe179c/t/55142e0ee4b06a02803077d1/1427385870286/150326-BoundaryCCS-Report.pdf

81 Status overview of torrefaction technologies, IEA Bioenergy Task 32 report, December 2012

82Bachu, S. Sequestration of CO2 in geological media: criteria and approaches for site selection in response to climate change. Energy Convers. Manage 2000

83http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/climateChange/CCS/howCanCo2BeStored.html

84http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srccs/srccs_chapter5.pdf

85Mechanisms for Geological Carbon Sequestration. Dongxiao Zhang and Juan Song, Mechanics for the World: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2012. 2014

86CO2 leakage through existing wells: current technolgy and regulations. Ide, T. et al., presented at the 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Trondheim, Norway. 2006

87Potential Impacts of Leakage from Deep CO2 Geosequestration on Overlying Freshwater Aquifers. Little, M. and Jackson, R., Environmental Science and Technology. 2010

88 Leakage of CO2 through abandoned wells: role of corrosion of cement. Scherer, G. et al. Carbon Dioxide Capture for Storage in Deep Geologic Formations – Results from the CO2 capture project. 2005

89The Role of Existing Wells as Pathways for CO 2 Leakage 2010. Celia, M. Search and Discovery Article #80093. 2010

90 Natural Leaking CO2-charged Systems as Analogs for Geologic Sequestration Sites. Evans, J. et al., 2004

91Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide. Cohen, Y. and Rothman, D., Proc. R. Soc, 2015

93Sequestering carbon dioxide in a closed underground volume. Economides, C. and Economides, M., Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2010

99 Tracing the fate of injected CO2 in the subsurface using chemical and isotopic techniques. Johnson, G., et al. Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, 2009

107 Paraphrased from this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoB0UlDPHY4

113Calibrating reservoir performance with time-lapse seismic monitoring and flow simulations of the Sleipner CO 2 plume. Chadwick, R., et al., GHGT-8: 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Tech, 2006

114 The Sleipner storage site: Capillary flow modeling of a layered CO2 plume requires fractured shale barriers within the Utsira Formation. Cavanagh, A. and Hazeldine, S., International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2014

122 The microseismic response at the In Salah Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) site. Stork, A., et al., International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2015

123The In Salah CO2 Storage Project: Lessons Learned and Knowledge Transfer. Ringrose, P., et al., Energy Procedia, 2013

124In Salah CO2 Storage JIP: Site Selection, Management, Field Development Plan and Monitoring Overview. Wright, I., et al., Energy Procedia, 2010

134 Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/EP/small_CO2_eor_primer.pdf

162 Synthesising existing knowledge on feasibility of BECCS: Workshop Report June 2015, Authors: N.E, Vaughan and C. Gough, AVOID 2,http://avoid-net-uk.cc.ic.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/delightful-downloads/2015/09/Synthesising-existing-knowledge-on-feasibility-of-BECCS-Workshop-Report-v1-AVOID-2-WPD1b.pdf

163 The role of negative CO2 emissions for reaching 2 °C—insights from integrated assessment modelling, Detlef P. van Vuuren et. al., Climatic Change, May 2013

164 Betting on Negative Emissions, Sabine Fuss et.al., Nature Climate Change, September 2014

170 Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability, Scott Power et.al., Nature, October 2013

171 Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming, Wenju Cai et.al., Nature, January 2014

174 Certifying Destruction: Why consumer companies need to go beyond the RSPO to stop forest destruction, Greenpeace, September 2013,

175 The EU Biofuel Policy and Palm Oil: Cutting Subsidies or Cutting Rainforests, Ivetta Gerasimchuk and Peng Yam Koh, Global Subsidies Initiative and International Institute for Sustainable Development, September 2013

176 Price Volatility and Food Security, Committee on World Food Security, High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition, July 2011

177 Bioenergy Out: Why bioenergy should not be included in the next EU Renewable Energy Directive, by NOAH (Friends of the Earth Denmark), Biofuelwatch, Econexus, Global Forest Coalition, World Rainforest Movement, Rettet den Regenwald/ Rainforest Rescue, and Corporate Europe Observatory, September 2015, www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/EU-Bioenergy-Briefing2.pdf

178 Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers, International Panel on Climate Change